The knowledge about routing and its different types is essential for a person to pass CCNA 100-101 ICND1 Exam as it is one of the major sections in the course outline.
What is Static Routing?
Static routing can be defined as a scenario in which the devices in a network communicate with each other on the basis of manually configured routing information (IP addresses) instead of using the information from dynamic routing protocols. The information can be managed manually with the help of routing table.
The routers are responsible for the identification of destination in a network. When a device wants to send an information packet to another device in a network, the router will perform the following tasks
- Path Identification: The router will identify the different paths in a network that can be used to move the packet towards destination / receiver.
- Selection: After identification of available paths, the router will have to choose the best path that can be used to transmit packet efficiently in less time.
- Management: The router is also responsible for the maintenance and verification of routing information.
The routers must have the information about the devices that are directly connected to them. The routing table is used for this purpose and to find out the best path in a network to reach the destination. The routing table is populated with IP addresses and information about network interface devices. This table contains destination IP, exit interface and next Hop if needed.
Static Routing Vs Dynamic Routing:
- Static Routes: The network administrators have to enter the routes and other information in the routers manually which is administratively intensive. If a network topology is changed, the route is to be updated manually. The advantage of this approach is that the routing behavior can be controlled precisely. The static routes should be used in small networks that require simple routing and should not be used in large networks or the networks which are expected to scale.
- Dynamic Routes: There are a number of advantages of this approach such as the routing protocols are changed automatically when the topology is changed. The routers maintain routes to the remote destinations with the help of exchanging routes updates. Moreover the routers can discover new networks by sharing routing table information.
Static Routing Configuration:
Following steps are followed while configuring a static route
- Define the path for the transmission of packets in a network to an IP destination network.
- Use the IP address of next-hop router.
- Or use the outbound interface of the local router.
Verification of Static Route Configuration:
For the verification of static routes in the routing table, examine the routing table with show ip route command:
- It includes the network address and subnet mask as well as IP address of next-hop router or exit interface
The routing tables must have directly connected networks that are used to connect remote networks before static or dynamic routing can be used.
Purpose of Inter – VLAN Routing:
VLAN stands for Virtual LAN. It is a network of computers that behave as if they are connected to a same wire in a LAN but these computers are physically far away from each other. These connected through software configuration instead of hardware that’s why it is a flexible scenario. If a computer is moved physically from one place to another, its VLAN configuration is not disturbed because it is independent of hardware.
Options for Inter – VLAN Routing
The following solutions can provide inter – VLAN Routing
- Routers with separate interface in each VLAN
- Router with Trunk Link
- Layer 3 switch
In the above figure we have two computers, computer A is in VLAN 10 and Computer B is in VLAN 20. For the purpose of communication between these two computers a router with separate interfaces is used. The router has dedicated interface for both of the computers. This router has the capability to transfer information between two broadcast domains.
Option – Router with Trunk Link: A trunk is a special circuit that allows to communicate with different VLANs. For this purpose, special configuration is done in the router and switch. The trunk link is basically developed to handle many signals simultaneously. The data can be the voice, images, videos or control signals. The process called as Encapsulation is used to keep each signal separated and isolated from each other during the transmission phase.
Option – Layer 3 Switch: The layer 3 switch is a high-performance device for network routing. The LAN 3 switch is slightly different from the router that’s why it can perform as a router. The layer 3 switch are developed in a way that they possess the features of both, the router and the switch and are capable to support the communication between different VLANs. The advantage of Layer 3 switch is that it is low in price as compared to the traditional router.
The static and dynamic routes have their own advantages and disadvantages. The usage of dynamic or static route depends upon the current scenario. Moreover, VLAN routing is done to enable different Virtual LANs to communicate with each other.
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Preparation Tips for CCNA 100-101 Exam:
After getting all the technical knowledge about 100-101 exam, the candidate have to practice for better preparation of the real exam. The practice tests are a best tool / way to prepare for the real exam as it is a simulator of a real exam.